Spatial updating and the maintenance of visual constancy


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Robinson, University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Pharmacy, Omaha, Nebraska, Biodegradable Nanoparticles Arcesio Rubio, Caracas, Venezuela, Liquid Dosage Forms Maria V. Conway 4.2 Semisolid Dosages: Ointments, Creams, and Gels 267 Ravichandran Mahalingam, Xiaoling Li, and Bhaskara R. Rubio-Bonilla, Roberto Londono, and Arcesio Rubio SECTION 5 NEW DOSAGE FORMS 345 5.1 Controlled-Release Dosage Forms 347 Anil Kumar Anal 5.2 Progress in the Design of Biodegradable Polymer-Based Microspheres for Parenteral Controlled Delivery of Therapeutic Peptide/Protein 393 Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan 5.3 Liposomes and Drug Delivery 443 Sophia G. Sousa 6.7 Effects of Grinding in Pharmaceutical Tablet Production 1165 Gavin Andrews, David Jones, Hui Zhai, Osama Abu Diak, and Gavin Walker 6.8 Oral Extended-Release Formulations 1191 Anette Larsson, Susanna Abrahmsen-Alami, and Anne Juppo SECTION 7 ROLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 1223 7.1 Cyclodextrin-Based Nanomaterials in Pharmaceutical Field 1225 Erem Bilensoy and A. This same report suggests that generic drugs cost approximately 11% of the total cost of branded pharmaceuticals (on a per - dose basis). This allows compounds that normally would not passively diffuse across the stratum corneum, such as therapeutic proteins, to be delivered transdermally. Vaginal peptidase inhibitors, such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), thimerosal, amastatin, bestatin, leuptin, and pepstatin A, were shown to be useful, promoting peptide absorption in rats, as they prevent drug degradation [60, 62] . These structures may be further differentiated according to their primary composition: Organic Inorganic Organic/inorganic hybrid Carbon based NANO-PHARMACEUTICAL SYSTEMS 1291 1292 PHARMACEUTICAL NANOSYSTEMS TABLE 1 Partial Nanomedicine Technologies Taxonomy Raw nanomaterials Nanoparticle coatings Nanocrystalline materials Nanostructured materials Cyclic peptides Dendrimers Detoxifi cation agents Fullerenes Functional drug carriers Magnetic resonance (MR) scanning (nanoparticles) Nanobarcodes Nanoemulsions Nanofi bers Nanoparticles Nanoshells Carbon nanotubes Quantum dots Artifi cial binding sites Artifi cial antibodies Artifi cial enzymes Artifi cial receptors Molecularly imprinted polymers Control of surfaces Artifi cial surfaces, adhesive Artifi cial surfaces, nonadhesive Artifi cial surfaces, regulated Biocompatible surfaces Biofi lm suppression Engineered surfaces Pattern surfaces (contact guidance) Thin - fi lm coatings Nanopores Immunoisolation Molecular sieves and channels Nanofi ltration membranes Nanopores Separations Biological research Nanobiology Nanoscience in life sciences Drug delivery Drug discovery Biopharmaceuticals Drug delivery Drug encapsulation Smart drugs Synthetic biology and early nanodevices Dynamic nanoplatform nanosome Tecto - dendrimers Artifi cial cells and liposomes Polymeric micelles and polymersomes Nanorobotics DNA - based devices and nanorobots Diamond - based nanorobots Cell repair devices Cell simulations and cell diagnostics Cell chips Cell stimulators DNA manipulation, sequencing, diagnostics Genetic testing Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarrays Ultrafast DNA sequencing DNA manipulation and control Tools and diagnostics Bacterial detection systems Biochips Biomolecular imaging Biosensors and biodetection Diagnostic and defense applications Endoscopic robots and microscopes Fullerene - based sensors Imaging (e.g., cellular) Lab on chip Monitoring Nanosensors Point - of - care diagnostics Protein microarrays Scanning probe microscopy Intracellular devices Intracellular assay Intracellular biocomputers Intracellular sensors/reporters Implant inside cells Bio MEMS Implantable materials and devices Implanted bio microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs), chips, and electrodes MEMS/nanomaterial - based prosthetics Sensory aids (e.g.,) Microarrays Microcantilever - based sensors Microfl uidics Microneedles Medical MEMS MEMS surgical devices Molecular medicine Genetic therapy Pharmacogenomics Artifi cial enzymes and enzyme control Enzyme manipulation and control Nanotherapeutics Antibacterial and antiviral nanoparticles Fullerene - based pharmaceuticals Photodynamic therapy Radiopharmaceuticals Biotechnology and biorobotics Biological viral therapy Virus - based hybrids Stem cells and cloning Tissue engineering Artifi cial organs Nanobiotechnology Biorobotics and biobots Source : From ref. TABLE 1 Continued 7.3.4 DESCRIPTION OF NANOSYSTEMS There is clear evidence from Table 2 that some of the nanosystems indicated are based on conventional colloidal chemistry, and their characteristics are well established and understood.

Rubio - Bonilla, Research Associate, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, Liquid Dosage Forms Ilva D. Antimisiaris, Paraskevi Kallinteri, and Dimitrios G. Fatouros 5.4 Biodegradable Nanoparticles 535 Sudhir S. Robinson 5.5 Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae as New Drug Delivery System to Gut: In Vitro Validation and Oral Formulation 565 Stephanie Blanquet and Monique Alric 5.6 Nasal Delivery of Peptide and Nonpeptide Drugs 591 Chandan Thomas and Fakhrul Ahsan 5.7 Nasal Powder Drug Delivery 651 Jelena Filipovi -Gr i and Anita Hafner 5.8 Aerosol Drug Delivery 683 Michael Hindle 5.9 Ocular Drug Delivery 729 Ilva D. Alany 5.10 Microemulsions as Drug Delivery Systems 769 Raid G. Attila Hincal 7.2 Nanotechnology in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing 1249 Yiguang Jin 7.3 Pharmaceutical Nanosystems: Manufacture, Characterization, and Safety 1289 D. Chowdhury 7.4 Oil-in-Water Nanosized Emulsions: Medical Applications 1327 Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan INDEX 1367 xiii PREFACE This Handbook of Manufacturing Techniques focuses on a new aspect of the drug development challenge: producing and administering the physical drug products that we hope are going to provide valuable new pharmacotherapeutic tools in medicine. At the same time, the development and use of therapeutic proteins have increased dramatically, with more than 850 biotechnology drug products and vaccines currently in trials [3] . Currently various formulations of microneedle patches are being investigated in clinical trials in the United States [32 34] . ( 1987 ), Cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with occupational exposure to 1,2 propylene glycol dinitrate , J. At this point it is also important to notice that some substances can reduce the permeability of the vaginal mucosa [63] , this possibility always being important when designing a drug delivery system. The descriptions below deal mainly with systems deemed nonconventional and cover some of the key novel properties derived from or utilized as part of their construction. ( 2004 ), Optical properties and applications of dendrimer - metal nanocomposites , Int.

Chakravarthi, University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Pharmacy, Omaha, Nebraska, Biodegradable Nanoparticles D. Chowdhury, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Pharmaceutical Nanosystems: Manufacture, Characterization, and Safety Barbara R. ( 2003 ), Nasal drug delivery Possibilities, problems and solutions , J. These permeation enhancers are compounds which partition into the stratum corneum and promote the passage of topically applied compounds across the skin layers by using three possible mechanisms of action (Table 5 ). ( 2005 ), Nicotine exposure and decontamination on tobacco harvesters hands , Ann. Also, receptor - mediated transport mechanisms can be involved in the absorption of some substances. 7.3.2 TAXONOMY OF NANOMEDICINE TECHNOLOGIES A useful starting point would be to gauge the breadth of technologies falling under the classifi cation of nanomedicine. Novel composite core - shell nanoparticles as busulfan carriers , J.

Conway, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom, Solid Dosage Forms Jos e das Neves, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, Vaginal Drug Delivery Osama Abu Diak, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Effects of Grinding in Pharmaceutical Tablet Production Brit S. The mechanisms by which these compounds enhance permeability of the skin have been previously described by Williams and Barry and are often referred to as the lipid protein partitioning theory [30] . The magnitude of the fl ux rate across the vaginal mucosa is mainly related to the molecular size and hydrophobicity of the permeating substances. Table 1 provides a means of classifying materials and processes derived from nanotechnology as relating to pharmaceuticals and medicine in general.

Many of these updating signals arise from brainstem regions that monitor our ongoing movements and subsequently transmit this information to the cortex via pathways that likely include the thalamus.

Several issues of debate include (1) the relative contribution of extra-retinal sensory and efference copy signals to spatial updating, (2) the source of an updating signal for real life, three-dimensional motion that cannot arise from brain areas encoding only two-dimensional commands, and (3) the reference frames used by the brain to integrate updating signals from various sources.

At the neuronal level, spatial updating is thought to be maintained by receptive field locations that shift with changes in gaze, and evidence for such shifts has been shown in several cortical areas.

spatial updating and the maintenance of visual constancy-58

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2017 , : Denys 19 2016 45 THERAVECTYS - VILLEJUIF : Sergey 07 2016 Chengdu Okay Pharmaceutical Co. : Sergey 07 2016 French National Agency Dongying Tiandong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Antimisiaris, School of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rio, Greece, Liposomes and Drug Delivery vi CONTRIBUTORS Robert D. The 6 - mg/day patch has a surface area of 20 mg/20 cm 2 , the 9 - mg/day patch has a surface area of 30 mg/30 cm 2 , and the 12 - mg/day patch has a surface area of 40 mg/40 cm 2 . ( 2004 ), Stratum corneum keratin structure, function, and formation: The cubic rod - packing and membrane templating model , J. Knowledge of the permeability characteristics of the vaginal mucosa is an important step when developing a pharmaceutical product, with both the physicochemical properties of chemical substances (e.g., chemical nature, degree of ionization, molecular weight and size, conformation, and oil/water partition coeffi cient) and the biophysicochemical nature of the tissue infl uencing absorption. Additionally nonconventional means of molecular assembly and atomic manipulation can lead to novel material properties.

Quality and precision is secured so that the products can be used for highly qualitative experiments in laboratories as well as for continuous use in industrial applications.

The products for humidification and precise evaporation are based upon a deep understanding of physical chemistry and the application of new technologies.

: Sergey 07 2016 Chinese Heparin Manufacturer again involved in Falsification and GMP Non-Compliance : Sergey 07 2016 16: : Sergey 10 2016 2015 MA 93 : News 04 2016 FDA 2015 : News 04 2016 2015 : Sergey 04 2016 : News 04 2016 SHAYNE COX GAD, PH. Arnold, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Biotechnology - Derived Drug Product Development C. ( 1994 ), Chitosan as a novel nasal delivery system for peptide drugs , Pharm. 5.11.7.10 Daytrana Daytrana is a newly approved methylphenidate transdermal system. The epithelial layer of the vaginal mucosa presents itself as the main permeability barrier for drug absorption. Control and exploitation of these effects can lead to new and useful changes to the thermal, magnetic, electrical, optical and mechanical, and biological and physicochemical properties of materials.

Alany, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, Ocular Drug Delivery; Microemulsions as Drug Delivery Systems Monique Alric, Universit e d Auvergne, Clermont - Ferrand, France, Recombinant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae as New Drug Delivery System to Gut: In Vitro Validation and Oral Formulation Sacide Alsoy Altinkaya, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla - Izmir, Turkey, Controlled Release of Drugs from Tablet Coatings Maria Helena Amaral, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, Vaginal Drug Delivery Anil Kumar Anal, Living Cell Technologies (Global) Limited, Auckland, New Zealand, Controlled - Release Dosage Forms Gavin Andrews, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Effects of Grinding in Pharmaceutical Tablet Production Sophia G. Emsam is a matrix - type patch that has three layers and is available in three size. In general, systemic drug absorption requires three steps: drug release from the delivery system, drug dissolution in the vaginal fl uid, and permeation of the vaginal mucosa. Properties that can be exploited to provide novel and unique properties to materials include surface and quantum effects, for example, van der Waals forces; electrostatic interaction; ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonding; and quantum confi nement. Rupenthal, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, Ocular Drug Delivery Maria In e s Rocha Miritello Santoro, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of S a o Paulo, S a o Paulo, Brazil, Packaging and Labeling Helton M. Santos, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, Tablet Compression Raymond K. Sousa, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, Tablet Compression Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, Progress in Design of Biodegradable Polymer - Based Microspheres for Parenteral Controlled Delivery of Therapeutic Peptide/Protein; Oil - in - Water Nanosized Emulsions: Medical Applications Chandan Thomas, Texas Tech University, Amarillo, Texas, Nasal Delivery of Peptide and Nonpeptide Drugs Gavin Walker, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Effects of Grinding in Pharmaceutical Tablet Production Jingyuan Wen, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, Microemulsions as Drug Delivery Systems Hui Zhai, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Effects of Grinding in Pharmaceutical Tablet Production ix CONTENTS PREFACE xiii SECTION 1 MANUFACTURING SPECIALTIES 1 1.1 Biotechnology-Derived Drug Product Development 3 Stephen M. Alany and Jingyuan Wen c c c CONTENTS xi 5.11 Transdermal Drug Delivery 793 C. Bumgarner 5.12 Vaginal Drug Delivery 809 Jose das Neves, Maria Helena Amaral, and Maria Fernanda Bahia SECTION 6 TABLET PRODUCTION 879 6.1 Pharmaceutical Preformulation: Physicochemical Properties of Excipients and Powers and Tablet Characterization 881 Beom-Jin Lee 6.2 Role of Preformulation in Development of Solid Dosage Forms 933 Omathanu P. Podaralla 6.3 Tablet Design 977 Eddy Castellanos Gil, Isidoro Caraballo, and Bernard Bataille 6.4 Tablet Production Systems 1053 Katharina M. These 34 chapters cover the full range of approaches to developing and producing new formulations and new approaches to drug delivery. Further, it is estimated that by the year 2010 nearly one - half of all newly approved medicines will be of biological origin [4] . Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is experiencing mounting pressure to progress the cause of biogenerics. Iontophoresis and Sonophoresis In the early 1900s it was discovered that some chemical compounds could be delivered into the systemic circulation across the skin using an electric current. In addition, other approaches, such as the use of mucoadhesive polymers, in situ gelling formulations, or solubility enhancers, have been shown to be useful in improving vaginal permeability of several drugs [40] . 7.3.4.1 Polymeric Systems Polymer - based systems offer numerous advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ability to incorporate functional groups for attachment of drugs.