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The sex ratio trait is maternally inherited (Owen, 1970).That this is a distortion of the sex ratio and not a change in sexuality to parthenogenesis is suggested by the finding that virgin females lay infertile eggs (Chanter & Owen, 1972).The latter is likely, as survival is often strongly density-dependent in the laboratory.In May 1997, adult Acraea encedon samples were collected from a single colony at Kagolomolo on the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, which was studied previously by Owen & Chanter (1969).The word ‘slavery’ conjures images of cruelty, racial bigotry and economic exploitation associated with the plantation complex crucial to the Atlantic trading economy from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries.Yet this was only one manifestation of practices of human bondage.The practice continued to be widespread throughout the region into the early twentieth century. Christine van Ruymbeke gave me some comments from the Persian angle, as well as more general feedback.This article has grown out of my doctoral research on Afghan state formation in the early nineteenth century. My wife, Lila Rabinovich, offered a wealth of critical observations, as well as faithfully proofread numerous drafts. Francesca Orsini provided useful commentary on the South Asian aspects of this paper, while Dr.
Eggs and newly emerged larvae were counted to give egg hatch rates.
Up to three broods from each matriline were reared to adulthood, and the rest were discarded after hatching.
Adult females or larvae were treated with three antibiotics that had previously been shown to cure insects infected with cytoplasmic bacteria (Stouthamer et al., 1990).
I presented an early version of this paper to the World History Graduate Seminar at the University of Cambridge. I would also like to acknowledge my anonymous reviewer, whose insightful comments helped me strengthen the article. Christine van Ruymbeke gave me some comments from the Persian angle, as well as more general feedback.
I owe thanks to a number of people for encouraging me to write this article, as well as taking the time to read over early drafts. This article has grown out of my doctoral research on Afghan state formation in the early nineteenth century. My wife, Lila Rabinovich, offered a wealth of critical observations, as well as faithfully proofread numerous drafts.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether female-biased sex ratios recorded in the butterfly Acraea encedon (L.) are the result of sex chromosome meiotic drive, as has been proposed previously.